Technical information on Kappa products
Instrument transformers are used for measurement and protective application, together with equipment such as meters and relays. Their role in electrical systems is of primary importance as they are a means of "stepping down" the current or voltage of a system to measurable values, such as 5A or 1A in the case of a current transformers or 110V or 100V in the case of a voltage transformer. This offers the advantage that measurement and protective equipment can be standardized on a few values of current and voltage.
Voltage transformers
Principle of operation
The standards define a voltage transformer as one in which "the secondary voltage is substantially proportional to the primary voltage and differs in phase from it by an angle which is approximately zero for an appropriate direction of the connections."
This, in essence, means that the voltage transformer has to be as close as possible to the "ideal" transformer. In an "ideal" transformer, the secondary voltage vector is exactly opposite and equal to the primary voltage vector, when multiplied by the turns ratio.
In a "practical" transformer, errors are introduced because some current is drawn for the magnetization of the core and because of drops in the primary and secondary windings due to leakage reactance and winding resistance. One can thus talk of a voltage error,which is the amount by which the voltage is less than the applied primary voltage ,and the phase error, which is the phase angle by which the reversed secondary voltage vector is displaced from the primary voltage vector.
Kappa designs its VT's so that the resistance and reactance drops are minimized. It also uses the best grades of cold rolled grain oriented electrical steels which enables operation at optimum levels of magnetic induction, thus reducing both the size and the cost of the VT.
Definitions
Typical terms used for specifying a voltage transformer (VT)

Rated primary voltage: This is the rated voltage of the system whose voltage is required to be stepped down for measurement and protective purposes.

Rated secondary voltage: This is the voltage at which the meters and protective devices connected to the secondary circuit of the voltage transformer operate.

Rated burden: This is the load in terms of voltamperes (VA) posed by the devices in the secondary circuit on the VT. This includes the burden imposed by the connecting leads. The VT is required to be accurate at both the rated burden and 25% of the rated burden.

Accuracy class required: The transformation errors that are permissible, including voltage (ratio) error and phase angle error. Phase error is specified in minutes. Typical accuracy classes are Class 0.5, Class 1 and Class 3. Both metering and protection classes of accuracy are specified. In a metering VT, the VT is required to be within the specified errors from 80% to 120% of the rated voltage. In a protection VT, the VT is required to be accurate from 5% upto the rated voltage factor times the rated voltage.

Rated voltage factor: Depending on the system in which the VT is to be used, the rated voltage factors to be specified are different. The table below is adopted from Indian and International standards.
Rated voltage factor  Rated time 
Method of connecting primary winding in system 
1.2  Continuous  Between phases in any network
Between transformer starpoint and earth in any network 
1.2 1.5  Continuous for 30 seconds 
Between phase and earth in an effectively earthed neutral system 
1.2 1.9  Continuous for 30 seconds 
Between phase and earth in a noneffectively earthed neutral system with automatic fault tripping 
1.2 1.9  Continuous for 8 hours 
Between phase and earth in an isolated neutral system without automatic fault tripping or in a resonant earthed system without automatic fault tripping 

Temperature class of insulation: The permissible temperature rise over the specified ambient temperature. Typically, classes E, B and F.

Residual voltage transformer (RVT): RVTs are used for residual earth fault protection and for discharging capacitor banks. The secondary residual voltage winding is connected in open delta. Under normal conditions of operation, there is no voltage output across the residual voltage winding. When there is an earth fault, a voltage is developed across the open delta winding which activates the relay. When using a three phase RVT, the primary neutral should be earthed, as otherwise third harmonic voltages will appear across the residual winding.
3 phase RVTs typically have 5 limb construction.

Metering Units:11kV metering units consist of one 3 phase VT and 2 CT's connected together in a single housing. This can be used for three phase monitoring of energy parameters. It is used with trivector meters and energy meters.
Standards
The Indian and international standard references for VT s are as given in the table below:
Standard  Standard Number  Year 
Indian  3156  1992 
British  BS EN 600442  1997 
British  BS 7729  1994 
International Electro technical Commission (IEC)  IEC 600442 
1997 
Australian  AS 1243  1982 
Australian  AS 600442  2007 
American  ANSI C.57.13  1993 
Kappa manufactures VT s to international standards. Our designs are backed up by extensive type testing at national and international laboratories.
Tests
A number of routine and type tests have to be conducted on VT s before they can meet the standards specified above. The tests can be classified as:
 Accuracy tests to determine whether the errors of the VT are within specified limits
 Dielectric insulation tests such as power frequency withstand voltage test on primary and secondary windings for one minute, induced overvoltage test , impuse tests with 1.2u/50u wave, and partial discharge tests (for voltage>=6.6 kV) to determine whether the discharge is below the specified limits.
 Temperature rise tests
 Short circuit tests
 Verification of terminal markings and polarity
Kappa conducts routine tests on each and every VT produced and all designs are type tested.
Typical specification for a 11 kV VT
System voltage: 11 kV
Insulation level voltage (ILV) : 12 /28/75 kV
Number of phases: Three
Vector Group: Star / Star
Ratio: 11 kV/ 110 V
Burden: 100 VA
Accuracy: Class 0.5
Voltage Factor: 1.2 continuous and 1.5 for 30 seconds
With provision for fuse
Double and triple secondary VT s are also manufactured.
Current transformers
Principle of operation
A current transformer is defined as "as an instrument transformer in which the secondary current is substantially proportional to the primary current (under normal conditions of operation) and differs in phase from it by an angle which is approximately zero for an appropriate direction of the connections." This highlights the accuracy requirement of the current transformer but also important is the isolating function, which means no matter what the system voltage the secondary circuit need be insulated only for a low voltage.
The current transformer works on the principle of variable flux. In the "ideal" current transformer, secondary current would be exactly equal (when multiplied by the turns ratio) and opposite to the primary current. But, as in the voltage transformer, some of the primary current or the primary ampereturns is utilized for magnetizing the core, thus leaving less than the actual primary ampere turns to be "transformed" into the secondary ampereturns. This naturally introduces an error in the transformation. The error is classified into twothe current or ratio error and the phase error.
Kappa CT s are designed to minimise the errors using the best quality electrical steels for the core of the transformer. Both toroidal (round) and rectangular CT s are manufactured.
Definitions
Rated primary current: The value of current which is to be transformed to a lower value. In CT parlance, the "load" of the CT refers to the primary current.
Rated secondary current: The current in the secondary circuit and on which the performance of the CT is based. Typical values of secondary current are 1 A or 5 A. In the case of transformer differential protection, secondary currents of 1/ root 3 A and 5/ root 3 A are also specified.
Rated burden: The apparent power of the secondary circuit in Voltamperes expressed at the rated secondary current and at a specific power factor (0.8 for almost all standards)
Accuracy class: In the case of metering CT s, accuracy class is typically, 0.2, 0.5, 1 or 3. This means that the errors have to be within the limits specified in the standards for that particular accuracy class. The metering CT has to be accurate from 5% to 120% of the rated primary current, at 25% and 100% of the rated burden at the specified power factor. In the case of protection CT s, the CT s should pass both the ratio and phase errors at the specified accuracy class, usually 5P or 10P, as well as composite error at the accuracy limit factor of the CT.
Composite error: The rms value of the difference between the instantaneous primary current and the instantaneous secondary current multiplied by the turns ratio, under steady state conditions.
Accuracy limit factor: The value of primary current upto which the CT complies with composite error requirements. This is typically 5, 10 or 15, which means that the composite error of the CT has to be within specified limits at 5, 10 or 15 times the rated primary current.
Short time rating: The value of primary current (in kA) that the CT should be able to withstand both thermally and dynamically without damage to the windings, with the secondary circuit being shortcircuited. The time specified is usually 1 or 3 seconds.
Instrument security factor (factor of security): This typically takes a value of less than 5 or less than 10 though it could be much higher if the ratio is very low. If the factor of security of the CT is 5, it means that the composite error of the metering CT at 5 times the rated primary current is equal to or greater than 10%. This means that heavy currents on the primary are not passed on to the secondary circuit and instruments are therefore protected. In the case of double ratio CT's, FS is applicable for the lowest ratio only.
Class PS/ X CT: In balance systems of protection, CT s with a high degree of similarity in their characteristics are required. These requirements are met by Class PS (X) CT s. Their performance is defined in terms of a kneepoint voltage (KPV), the magnetizing current (Imag) at the knee point voltage or 1/2 or 1/4 the kneepoint voltage, and the resistance of the CT secondary winding corrected to 75C. Accuracy is defined in terms of the turns ratio.
Knee point voltage: That point on the magnetizing curve where an increase of 10% in the flux density (voltage) causes an increase of 50% in the magnetizing force (current).
Summation CT: When the currents in a number of feeders need not be individually metered but summated to a single meter or instrument, a summation current transformer can be used. The summation CT consists of two or more primary windings which are connected to the feeders to be summated, and a single secondary winding, which feeds a current proportional to the summated primary current. A typical ratio would be 5+5+5/ 5A, which means that three primary feeders of 5 are to be summated to a single 5A meter.
Core balance CT (CBCT): The CBCT, also known as a zero sequence CT, is used for earth leakage and earth fault protection. The concept is similar to the RVT. In the CBCT, the three core cable or three single cores of a three phase system pass through the inner diameter of the CT. When the system is fault free, no current flows in the secondary of the CBCT. When there is an earth fault, the residual current (zero phase sequence current) of the system flows through the secondary of the CBCT and this operates the relay. In order to design the CBCT, the inner diameter of the CT, the relay type, the relay setting and the primary operating current need to be furnished.
Interposing CT's (ICT's) : Interposing CT's are used when the ratio of transformation is very high. It is also used to correct for phase displacement for differential protection of transformers.
Standards
The Indian and international standard references for CT s are as given in the table below:
Standard  Standard Number  Year 
Indian  2705  1992 
British  BS EN 600441  1999 
International Electro technical Commission (IEC)  IEC 600441 
2000 
Australian  AS 1675  1986 
Australian  AS 600441  2007 
American  ANSI C.57.13  1993 
Kappa manufactures CT s to international standards. Our designs are backed up by extensive up by extensive type testing at national and international laboratories.
Tests
A number of routine and type tests have to be conducted on CT s before they can meet the standards specified above. The tests can be classified as :
 Accuracy tests to determine whether the errors of the CT are within specified limits.
 Dielectric insulation tests such as power frequency withstand voltage test on primary and secondary windings for one minute, interturn insulation test at power frequency voltage, impulse tests with 1.2u/50 wave, and partial discharge tests (for voltage >=6.6kv) to determine whether the discharge is below the specified limits.
 Temperature rise tests.
 Short time current tests.
 Verification of terminal markings and polarity.
Kappa conducts routine tests on each and every CT produced and all designs are type tested.
Typical specification for a 11 kV CT
System voltage:11 kV
Insulation level voltage (ILV) : 12/28/75 kV
Ratio: 200/1  1  0.577 A
Core 1: 1A, metering, 15 VA/class 1, ISF<10
Core 2: 1 A, protection, 15 VA/5P10
Core 3: 0.577 A, Class PS, KPV>= 150 V, Imag at Vk/2 <=30 mA, RCT at 75 C<=2 ohms
Short time rating:20 kA for 1 second
Instrument transformers  A reference manual
Kappa has published a handy reference manual for instrument transformers. The manual runs to about 160 pages and further details on all of the above topics as well as on much more, including Australian and ANSI standards can be found in the manual. The table of contents of the manual is reproduced below:
Introduction to instrument transformers
Current transformers  a discussion on theory, specifications and operational aspects. Definitions  Ideal and practical CT  Magnetic alloys for cores  equivalent circuits  open circuits voltages in CTs  leakage reactance  modification of current transformer errors  operational aspects  standard specifications for CT s.
Metering or measurement current transformers
Accuracy  instrument security factor  accuracy requirements for various applications  use of CT s in indicating and metering units  summation CT.
Protection CTs
Composite error  Accuracy limits  transient stability and class PS CTs  Basic protection schemes  CT requirement for various protection schemes  CBCTs.
Further notes on current transformers
Transient performance  non conventional CTs  screening of CTs.
Voltage transformer  theory and specifications
Operating principles  difference between power transformer and VT  circle diagrams and VT errors  three phase VTs  voltage transformer protection  transients in VTs  construction of VT s. specifications for VTs.
Voltage transformers for measurement and protection
Measurement VTs protection VTs Residual VTs  Cascade VTs  Capacitors VTs .
A discussion on partial discharge
Definition  partial discharge and breakdown in a cavity  study of partial discharges
Appendix I  Testing of instrument transformers by the user
Appendix II  Information required with enquiries and orders
Appendix III  List of Indian and international standards that may be read in conjunction with this book.
Bibliography
If you would like to have to buy a copy of the manual, please
contact Kappa.
